Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents and Substance Abuse

Friends dealing with peer pressure

Contributor: Roseann Rook, CADC Clinical Addictions Specialist Timberline Knolls

Peer pressure has been an active force in the American culture for many, many decades. Essentially, peer pressure is the strategy by which any group influences its members. Those on the receiving end, eventually change their behavior to conform to the group.

Unfortunately, a group rarely pressures its members to change in a positive fashion. You wouldn’t find a group of teens pressuring others to say get better grades or engage in a philanthropic project. By and large, the desired change is negative; it could involve anything from smoking cigarettes to taking opioids.

Adolescents, primarily female, are most likely to fall victim to peer pressure; this is the result of myriad factors. Perhaps the greatest issue is the vast value placed on popularity with the commensurate fear of rejection and possible isolation. For a teenage girl, social ostracism is literally a fate worse than death. Drinking or taking drugs seems a small price to remain part of the group.

Influence of Peer Connection on Development

The importance of the peer connection is not just social–it is physiological. A study registered brain activity in teens while they were driving. It found that having a peer audience turned on the reward system area of the brain, and thus, increased risky behavior.
Although the end goal of peer pressure—revised behavior—has never changed, the method of applying pressure has definitely altered. Two words: social media.

Friends talking about substance abuseToday’s adults are the Facebook generation; conversely, adolescents are the Instagram and snap chat generation. Millions of photos are sent through cyberspace every minute. These photos often depict drinking beer, doing shots, smoking weed—any number of unhealthy, and often illegal activities under the guise of “partying. And everyone is having so much fun; in the teen’s subconscious mind, the drink or drug is inextricably linked with incredible enjoyment.

Understanding Digital Peer Pressure

This phenomenon is known as Digital peer pressure. A survey conducted by The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University revealed:

  • 75% of teens said seeing pictures of teens partying with alcohol or marijuana on social networking sites encouraged them to do the same.
  • 47% said they have seen party promoting pictures online that seemed like the kids were having a good time.
  • Teens who saw images of partying were four times more likely to have used marijuana and more than three times more likely to have used alcohol
  • Historically, Adolescents viewed drinking alcohol as somewhat of a “rite of passage “This concept is often validated in movies and television shows that depict teens getting “wasted.” But now, this particular rite is often expanded to include smoking marijuana and taking pills, which leads us to another societal phenomenon.

The Beginnings of Substance Abuse

This is the highly normalized behavior of taking pharmaceutical medications. Young people, not unlike adults, erroneously believe that if a drug is prescribed by a doctor, it is automatically safe. They are wrong, especially when taken with alcohol or other drugs.

Guys talking peer pressureToday, pills are ubiquitous, frequently prescribed to family members with a host of refills. Young people know the next high is easily found in the parents’ medicine cabinet. Another added benefit of pills is their economy of size. Whereas there is no hiding a fifth of vodka in a purse while at school, a bottle of pills is easily tucked away in a pocket.

We know that teenage drug experimentation can easily lead to lifelong addiction. As with anything else, if a particular behavior is rewarding, the possibility of repetition is high. And availability remains strong.

  • Alcohol Substance Abuse Knowledge base reports around 30% of teens are offered drugs in middle school and high school
  • According to the National Household Survey on Drug Use and Health from the US Department of Health and Human Services, 74.3% of high school students have tried alcohol

No adolescent lives in a vacuum; therefore, drugs and alcohol will always be an aspect of the teenage experience. If you, or someone you know, has a problem with addiction, please get help.


Headshot of Roseann RookAbout the author:

As a Clinical Addictions Specialist, Roseann is responsible for conducting psycho-educational and process groups as well as providing individual counseling for addiction treatment including co-occurring disorders such as Eating Disorders and Mood Disorders at Timberline Knolls. She specializes in Process Addictions with a strong focus on Relationship Addictions.

Roseann was instrumental in the development of Timberline Knolls’ Addiction Program and the implementation of addressing Process Addictions into the curriculum. As a member of Timberline Knolls’ Clinical Development Institute, she has presented locally and at National conferences.

Roseann has worked in the addictions field since 1993, starting at Aunt Martha’s Youth Service as an addiction counselor moved on to counsel MISA clients at Grand Prairie Services followed by working for the YMCA Network for Counseling and Youth Development as an Addictions Counselor and Crisis Worker. She returned to Grand Prairie Services for a brief stint to develop and implement an out-patient program before joining Timberline Knolls in 2006.


The opinions and views of our guest contributors are shared to provide a broad perspective of addictions. These are not necessarily the views of Addiction Hope, but an effort to offer discussion of various issues by different concerned individuals.

We at Addiction Hope understand that addictions result from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. If you or a loved one are suffering from an addiction, please know that there is hope for you, and seek immediate professional help.

Last Updated & Reviewed By: Jacquelyn Ekern, MS, LPC on November 25, 2016
Published on AddictionHope.com

About Jacquelyn Ekern, MS, LPC

Jacquelyn Ekern founded Addiction Hope in January, 2013, after experiencing years of inquiries for addiction help by visitors to our well regarded sister site, Eating Disorder Hope. Many of the eating disorder sufferers that contact Eating Disorder Hope also had a co-occurring issue of addiction to alcohol, drugs, and process addictions.